Istanbul target (reservoir) map. The polygons of varying shades of blue show travel times for water to flow into adjacent reservoir (1-4 hours).
The outermost polygons (4 hour travel times) approximate seeding targets.
Various surface meteorological stations are also shown with key at lower left. Courtesy Municipality of Istanbul Emergency Management agency (AKOM).
has teamed with the National Center of Atmospheric
Research (NCAR) to study the opportunities for
precipitation enhancement in the Istanbul area. The objectives of the *Precipitation Augmentation Program and Research on Istanbul Clouds and Aerosols (PAPRICA)* project are to:
(a) Determine a basic understanding of the natural
cloud characteristics and precipitation processes
occurring within the clouds of Istanbul, Turkey.
Specifically, the natural microphysical
characteristics of the warm and cold clouds will be
documented. Natural and anthropogenic aerosols will be
sampled to determine their effect on precipitation
(b) Test the concepts of hygroscopic seeding in
Istanbul by conducting trial hygroscopic seeding
(c) Test the latest concepts of glaciogenic seeding
using modern formulations of silver iodide (AgI) in
Istanbul by conducting trial AgI seeding cases.
(d) Document the time history of hygroscopic and
glaciogenic seeding experiments using both in-situ
microphysical measurements and radar.
(e) Evaluate radar-derived rainfall from seeded
(hygroscopic and glaciogenic) clouds and unseeded
(f) Conduct analysis of the data collected that
determines the feasibility to design a multi-year
cloud seeding operational and research program as a
viable water management technology for the Istanbul